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Biomarker: AMPK-α1 (pS485)

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AMPK-α1 (pS485)

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Experienced Running

Biological or Clinical Significance:

5′ AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells.

The heterotrimeric protein AMPK is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. Each of these three subunits takes on a specific role in both the stability and activity of AMPK. AMPK acts as a metabolic master switch regulating several intracellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria.

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