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Biomarker: B2M

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B2M

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Status:

Experienced Running

Biological or Clinical Significance:

β2 microglobulin also known as B2M is a component of MHC class I molecules, which are present on all nucleated cells (excludes red blood cells).[2][3] In humans, the β2 microglobulin protein[4] is encoded by the B2M gene. In patients on long-term hemodialysis, it can aggregate into amyloid fibers that deposit in joint spaces, a disease known as dialysis-related amyloidosis.

Mice models deficient for the β2 microglobulin gene have been engineered. These mice demonstrate that β2 microglobulin is necessary for cell surface expression of MHC class I and stability of the peptide binding groove. In fact, in the absence of β2 microglobulin, very limited amounts of MHC class I (classical and non-classical) molecules can be detected on the surface. In the absence of MHC class I, CD8 T cells cannot develop. (CD8 T cells are a subset of T cells involved in the development of acquired immunity.) Low levels of β2 microglobulin can indicate non-progression of HIV.

References:

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