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Biomarker: eIF4E (pS209)

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Analyte:

eIF4E (pS209)

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Status:

Experienced Running

Biological or Clinical Significance:

All eukaryotic cellular mRNAs are blocked at their 5′-ends with the 7-methyl-guanosine five-prime cap structure, m7GpppX (where X is any nucleotide). This structure is involved in several cellular processes including enhanced translational efficiency, splicing, mRNA stability, and RNA nuclear export. eIF4E is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor involved in directing ribosomes to the cap structure of mRNAs. It is a 24-kD polypeptide that exists as both a free form and as part of the eIF4F pre-initiation complex. Almost all cellular mRNA require eIF4E in order to be translated into protein. The eIF4E polypeptide is the rate-limiting component of the eukaryotic translation apparatus and is involved in the mRNA-ribosome binding step of eukaryotic protein synthesis.

The other subunits of eIF4F are a 47-kD polypeptide, termed eIF4A, that possesses ATPase and RNA helicase activities, and a 220-kD scaffolding polypeptide, eIF4G.

Some viruses cut eIF4G in such a way that the eIF4E binding site is removed and the virus is able to translate its proteins without eIF4E. Also some cellular proteins, the most notable being heat shock proteins, do not require eIF4E in order to be translated. Both viruses and cellular proteins achieve this through an internal ribosome entry site in the RNA.

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