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Biomarker: GSK-3β (total)

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GSK-3β (total)

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Experienced Running

Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3, a serine/threonine kinase involved in multiple physiological processes is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed member of the CMGC family of protein kinases. To date, two members of the mammalian GSK3 family (α and β) are known. GSK3α/β plays a major role in epithelial cell homeostasis. GSK3 proteins usually have three domains, a small N-terminal domain, a slightly larger C-terminal domain and a predominant middle kinase domain. In addition to these domains, a nuclear localization sequence has also recently been identified. Its paradoxical role as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter is actively under investigation in various neoplastic diseases. GSK3 is a constitutively active enzyme in normal cells and undergoes rapid inhibition by stimuli. The activity of GSK3 is inhibited upon phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK3α and at Ser9 of GSK3β. GSK3 is a key suppressor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway including β-catenin and various other oncogenic transcription factors (OTFs), such as NFκB, AP-1, c-Myc and p53, which are involved in cell proliferation.

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