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Biomarker: MDM2 (ubiquitinated)

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MDM2 (ubiquitinated)

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Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDM2 gene. The full-length transcript of the mdm2 gene encodes a protein of 491 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 56kDa. Mdm2 is an important negative regulator of thep53 tumor suppressor. Mdm2 protein functions both as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes the N-terminal trans-activation domain (TAD) of the p53 tumor suppressor and an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activation. MDM2 is also required for organ development and tissue homeostasis because unopposed p53 activation leads to p53-overactivation-dependent cell death. The mitogenic role of MDM2 is also needed for wound healing upon tissue injury, while MDM2 inhibition impairs re-epithelialization upon epithelial damage. In addition, MDM2 has p53-independent transcription factor-like effects in nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFκB) activation. Therefore, MDM2 promotes tissue inflammation and MDM2 inhibition has potent anti-inflammatory effects in tissue injury. So, MDM2 blockade had mostly anti-inflammatory and anti-mitotic effects that can be of additive therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory and hyperproliferative disorders such as certain cancers or lymphoproliferative autoimmunity, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or crescentic glomerulonephritis.

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