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Biomarker: Sodium

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Analyte:

Sodium

Platform:

Colorimetric

Status:

Experienced Running

Biological or Clinical Significance:

In humans, sodium is an essential mineral that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum physiological requirement for sodium is 500 milligrams per day. Reduction of blood pressure and sodium concentration in the kidney result in the production of renin, which in turn produces aldosterone and angiotensin, retaining sodium in the urine. When the concentration of sodium increases, the production of renin decreases, and the sodium concentration returns to normal.[58] Sodium is important in neuron function, and in osmoregulation between cells and the extracellular fluid. Unusually low or high sodium levels in humans are recognized in medicine as hyponatremia and hypernatremia. In C4 plants, sodium is a micronutrient that aids in metabolism, specifically in regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate and synthesis of chlorophyll.[62] In others, it substitutes for potassium in several roles, such as maintaining turgor pressure and aiding in the opening and closing of stomata.

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