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Biomarker: Trappin-2

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Human Serum


Experienced Running


LLOQ: 2.76 pg/mL

Biological or Clinical Significance:

Trappin-2/Elafin is a serine protease inhibitor that plays a major role as an anti-inflammatory mediator at mucosal surfaces. In addition, Trappin-2/Elafin has antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial and fungal pathogens.

Primary uterine, Fallopian tube, cervical, and ectocervical epithelial cells produce Trappin-2/Elafin constitutively and that production of Trappin-2/Elafin is enhanced following stimulation with Poly(I:C), especially by the uterine cells. Recombinant Trappin-2/Elafin inhibits both T-cell-tropic X4/IIIB and macrophage-tropic R5/BaL HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory activity was observed when virus was incubated with Trappin-2/Elafin but not when Trappin-2/Elafin was added to cells either before infection or after infection. This suggests that the mechanism of inhibition is likely to be a direct interaction between HIV-1 and Trappin-2/Elafin.

Average levels of secreted Trappin-2/Elafin were higher in the cervico-vaginal lavages (CVL) from HIV-negative women, although the values did not reach statistical significance. Women at the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle produced more Trappin-2/Elafin in CVL relative to women at the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Trappin-2/Elafin might be an important endogenous microbicide of the female reproductive tract that is protective against HIV-1.

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