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Biomarker: Uric Acid

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Uric Acid

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Status:

Experienced Running

Biological or Clinical Significance:

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. It forms ions and salts known as urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate. Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones.

Uric acid is released in hypoxic conditions. In humans and higher primates, uric acid is the final oxidation (breakdown) product of purine metabolism and is excreted in urine. In most other mammals, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. In humans, about 70% of daily uric acid disposal occurs via the kidneys, and in 5-25% of humans, impaired renal (kidney) excretion leads to hyperuricemia.

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