Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. Different isoforms of SAA are expressed constitutively (constitutive SAAs) at different levels or in response to inflammatory stimuli (acute phase SAAs). These proteins are produced predominantly by the liver. The conservation of these proteins throughout invertebrates and vertebrates suggests that SAAs play a highly essential role in all animals.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is also an acute phase marker that responds rapidly. Similar to CRP, levels of acute-phase SAA increase within hours after inflammatory stimulus, and the magnitude of increase may be greater than that of CRP. Relatively trivial inflammatory stimuli can lead to SAA responses. It has been suggested that SAA levels correlate better with disease activity in early inflammatory joint disease than do ESR and CRP.
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